The full moon light was appreciated by farmers who worked late, and they prayed to the moon for a good harvest. In the West, this full moon is also known as the harvest moon. In the traditional calendar, autumn was the period from July to September. The night of the 15th of August, the exact midpoint of this period, was called the fifteenth night, so the full moon on that night was called the fifteenth night of Tsukimi, which means moon viewing. The fifteenth night of tsukimi began in China and later spread to Japan. From the Nara period to the Heian period, aristocrats would play music and compose songs at moon viewing parties. It is said that people enjoyed moon viewing. In the Edo period, moon viewing became popular among the common people, and in the fall, they would eat the rice they had just harvested. It has become a popular autumn festival tradition to express gratitude by making an offering before the gods. The third Monday in September is a unique Japanese holiday and a day to honor the elderly. On this day, Japanese, who have the highest rate of longevity in the world, also consider social welfare issues related to the elderly. The most popular visitors are children in kindergarten, who often visit a special nursing home for the elderly.
If they don’t live with their family, their family go to see their parents or grandparents that day. The local government also hosts many events, such as hospitality and memorabilia at the retirement home.”
The roots of Sea Day go back to the Meiji era. The emperor at the time toured Japan as part of the new government’s nation-building projects. Ships were not well known in Japan until the Meiji Restoration, so until then the shogunate had no permission to go overseas It was forbidden to travel. Therefore, it was considered dangerous to go to sea. So, in order to change that perception, they celebrated the safe return of the Emperor to Japan. Later, during World War II, when the Japanese nation was in a state of crisis, Japan celebrated a national holiday, but simply as a day of commemoration to unite the spirit of the nation.
And after the war, when a huge earthquake made land and air travel impossible, it was necessary to transport the necessary supplies. Japan put a lot of effort into mobilizing shipping. So, officials tried to revive the former “”Marine Day”” as a national holiday.
Ocean Day takes place on the third Monday in July and is also a great holiday for families to go to the beach and pool. The custom of viewing at the moon on the 15th of August of the lunar calendar came from China.
Tanabata is a festival that takes place on July 7 in many parts of Japan (although in some regions it is later) and is called the “”Vega Star Festival””. It originated in China and celebrates the meeting of the stars Vega and Altair in the Milky Way and the annual celebration of the relationship between lovers. According to Chinese legend, Vega was so in love with Altair that he neglected his weaving and as a result, an angry god put the Milky Way between them. They could only meet on the night of July 7. This festival is especially popular with young children. Wishes are written on colourful paper and hung on bamboo. They are called “”Tanzaku”” and generally wishes for health, wealth, love, success in education of one’s child, etc. Bon, the annual event for Budhist, is held from the 13th to 16th of July or the 13th to 16th of August in the solar calendar. It is believed that the spirits of the ancestors return at this time, so family graves are cleaned out by then.On the 13th, people carry tablets with their ancestors’ names on them after their deaths and put cucumbers and eggplants in the shape of cows and horses together. On the evening of the 16th, people make a bonfire to bid farewell to our ancestors. Ocean Day is a national holiday in Japan, established in recent years. The purpose of the festival is to pray for the welfare of Japan, the country of the sea. For this reason, many events related to the sea are held throughout Japan in July, and the Japanese Navy also commemorates this day by dressing up their ships entirely.
While many of the costumes in domestic plays are realistic recreations of Edo-era costumes, historical plays often use lavish Nishikiori costumes and large wigs, such as those of the Noh theatre. In addition, the beauty of the costume is also considered important in the case of Onnagata Odori.
One of the characteristics of Kabuki is the flashy makeup called “Kumadori” that appears in the period drama. There are about 50 main types of masks, and their colours and designs represent the main aspects of the actors. Red is considered “good” to represent virtue, passion and superhuman power, while blue is considered “evil” to represent negative qualities such as jealousy and fear.
The most important instrument in kabuki is the shamisen, and there are two genres of music performed on stage in front of the audience: lyrical music called nagauta (long songs) and narrative music sung with shamisen and other instruments as accompaniment. A typical nagauta ensemble consists of several shamisen players, singers, drummers, and flute players.
In addition to the music on stage, singers and musicians playing shamisen, flutes, and various percussion instruments are located offstage. They provide a variety of background music and sound effects.
In Kabuki, two blocks of wood (hyoshigi) are beaten together or wooden planks are bumped against each other to create dramatic sound effects.
Kabuki is, above all else, an actor’s theater, and the play serves primarily as a means to showcase the talent of the actors. There is no doubt that many kabuki fans have a taste for the play, but most people will go to the theater to see their favorite actors, regardless of the role or the play.
Each actor is a member of a clan, and each clan has its own style and approach to the role.
The most famous in Kabuki is the male actor known as the onnagata. The ideal of a onnagata is not to imitate a woman, but to symbolically express the essence of a woman. Attempts to incorporate actresses into modern Kabuki have been unsuccessful. Onnagata are an integral part of the Kabuki tradition, and it is highly unlikely that they will be replaced by actresses.
A central aspect of Kabuki acting is the display of stylized gestures and forms (kata). These include dance-like stylized fight movements (tachi) and special movements used between the entrance (tanmae) and exit (roppo) made through the flower path. The most important kata of kabuki is the threefold (hitting posture). At the climax of the scene, the actor, after a series of stylized movements, comes to a complete stop after a series of stylized movements, striking a pose that features a fixed gaze. Flashy molds appear in historical plays, but not in domestic plays.
Kabuki is one of the most famous performing arts in Japan. It is said that it was originally started in Kyoto by Okuni, a priestess of the Shrine. However, when kabuki became popular in Kyoto, the courtiers of the prostitutes began to imitate their own country’s kabuki in order to attract guests, and the shogunate banned women from performing there for fear of disturbing public morals. Since then, only men who play both male and female roles have been performing kabuki.
Kabuki is a comprehensive theatre consisting of music, dance and acting. The Kabuki stage features such features as rotating the stage to quickly change scenes, installing trap doors on the floor where actors appear, and lengthening the aisles of audience seats to make the comings and goings of actors more impressive. The unique makeup applied by actors is called Kumadori.
Kabuki can be divided into three broad categories: historical plays, domestic plays, and dance pieces, and about half of what is still performed today was originally written for puppetry.
Many historical plays are based on contemporary incidents of the samurai family, but in order to avoid conflict with the censors of the Tokugawa family, they disguise the incidents a bit by setting them in a time period before the Edo period.
The domestic plays were more realistic, both in dialogue and costumes, than the historical plays. To the audience, the freshly written domestic plays, often about scandals, murders and suicides, may have seemed like news to them. Later, “kizewamono” became popular in the early 19th century. They leaned toward sensationalism, using violence, shocking subject matter, and elaborate staging.
In dance productions, it was a showcase for the talents of a first-rate female roll performer.